Web Accessibility: Key Aspects and Top Testing Tools

In today’s digital world, creating an inclusive and accessible web experience is more important than ever. Web accessibility ensures that people with disabilities can access, navigate, and interact with websites just as effectively as those without disabilities. In this comprehensive guide, we will delve deeper into the ten most critical aspects of web accessibility and explore the leading tools you can use to test your website for compliance.

1. Page Structure:

Organizing content with a well-defined HTML structure not only enhances usability but also ensures accessibility. Screen readers rely on proper heading tags (H1-H6) to navigate and understand the structure of a web page. Tools such as WAVE, aXe, and Lighthouse can help evaluate the organization and semantic structure of your website’s HTML.

2. Text Alternatives (Alt Text):

Including alternative text (alt text) for images, graphs, and other visual elements is vital for individuals with visual impairments. Alt text provides a concise description of the image, conveying its meaning to users who can’t see it. Tools like aXe, WAVE, and Lighthouse can help identify missing or inadequate alt text, ensuring your website is inclusive for all users.

3. Keyboard Navigation:

Ensuring keyboard accessibility allows individuals who cannot use a mouse to navigate and interact with your website effectively. This includes using the “tab” key to navigate through interactive elements and ensuring focus indicators are visually evident. Tools like Keyboard Accessibility Checker and aXe can help evaluate and improve keyboard navigation on your website.

4. Color Contrast:

Maintaining sufficient color contrast between text and background colors is critical for users with visual impairments or color vision deficiencies. Tools like Lighthouse, WAVE, and aXe provide insights and suggestions to help you meet WCAG (Web Content Accessibility Guidelines) standards for color contrast.

5. Focus Management:

Ensuring proper focus management is crucial for accessibility, particularly for users who navigate websites using keyboards or assistive technologies. It involves providing clear visual cues or indicators to highlight the currently focused element, such as links and form fields. Additionally, focus should be managed in a logical and intuitive order to enable seamless navigation through interactive elements. Tools like aXe, Lighthouse, and the Keyboard Accessibility Checker can help evaluate and improve focus management on your website.

6. Forms and Input Fields:

Creating accessible forms is crucial for all users, particularly those who rely on assistive technologies. Ensuring clear labels, logical tab order, and appropriate error messaging contribute to a more inclusive web experience. Tools like aXe, Lighthouse, and WAVE can help identify form-related issues and guide you in making your forms accessible.

7. Multimedia Content:

To accommodate users with hearing impairments or those who prefer reading over watching videos, it’s important to provide captions, transcripts, and audio descriptions for multimedia content. Platforms like YouTube and Vimeo offer automatic caption generation, which can be manually reviewed for accuracy. Additionally, tools like aXe and WAVE can help identify missing or improperly implemented captions.

Meaningful and descriptive link and button text are crucial for users who rely on assistive technologies, as they provide context and clear indications of their functionalities. Tools like aXe, WAVE, and Lighthouse can help you identify instances where link and button text could be improved for better accessibility.

9. Responsive Design:

With the increasing use of mobile devices, ensuring your website is responsive and adapts well to different screen sizes is essential for accessibility. Tools like Google’s Mobile-Friendly Test, aXe, and Lighthouse can help assess the responsiveness of your website and provide suggestions for optimization.

10. Testing with Screen Readers:

To truly understand the accessibility of your website, testing with screen readers is invaluable. Screen readers like NVDA (NonVisual Desktop Access) and VoiceOver (for Mac) simulate how visually impaired users interact with your website. By testing your website with screen readers, you can identify potential accessibility barriers and ensure a smooth and seamless experience for all users.


Web accessibility is not just a legal or moral obligation; it is a means of creating an inclusive digital environment where everyone can fully participate. By focusing on the key aspects discussed in this comprehensive guide and utilizing the leading testing tools mentioned, you can take significant steps towards ensuring your website is accessible to all. Let’s strive to make the web a place where everyone feels welcome and empowered, regardless of their abilities.